Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are frequent and important infectious complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of pre-engraftment BSIs after allogeneic HCT. We retrospectively analyzed data from 553 consecutive patients who underwent HCT between 2010 and 2016. Sixty percent of the patients received T cell-replete unmanipulated haploidentical bone marrow with high-dose post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. The BSI rate was 30%; among isolated 213 pathogens, 54% were Gram-positive, 43% were Gram-negative, and 3% were fungi. Independent risk factors for pre-engraftment BSI were transplantation from a haploidentical donor or from cord blood (P < .001), active disease (P = .002), age (P = .04), and myeloproliferative disorders or aplastic anemia (P < .001). Transplantation from a haploidentical donor was an independent risk factor for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative BSI. The 7-day mortality after any BSI was 5% (9 of 178), and in multivariate analysis, BSI etiology was the sole risk factor, with increased mortality in carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative BSI (P < .001). Nonrelapse mortality at day +60 after HCT was 3.8% (21 of 553); independent predictors were active disease (P = .045), year of HCT (P = .027), nonengraftment (P = .001), and pre-engraftment BSI (P < .001), with significantly higher risk in BSI due to Gram-negative pathogens compared with Gram-positive pathogens, and BSI due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens compared with susceptible pathogens. Pre-engraftment BSI is a frequent complication after HCT from a haploidentical donor or cord blood. Because the negative impact of pre-engraftment BSI on 60-day nonrelapse mortality was caused mainly by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, particular attention should be given to appropriate empiric therapy and management of patients at high risk for Gram-negative BSI.