Purpose: The primary aim of this prospective observational study was to assess whether diffusion MRI metrics correlate with isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) status in grade II and III gliomas. A secondary aim was to investigate whether multishell acquisitions with advanced models such as neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging offer greater diagnostic accuracy than diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods: Diffusion MRI (b = 700 and 2000 sec/mm2) was performed preoperatively in 192 consecutive participants (113 male and 79 female participants; mean age, 46.18 years; age range, 14–77 years) with grade II (n = 62), grade III (n = 58), or grade IV (n = 72) gliomas. DTI, diffusion kurtosis imaging, and NODDI metrics were measured in regions with or without hyperintensity on diffusion MR images and compared among groups defined according to IDH genotype, 1p/19q codeletion status, and tumor grade by using Mann-Whitney tests. Results: In grade II and III IDH wild-type gliomas, the maximum fractional anisotropy, kurtosis anisotropy, and restriction fraction were significantly higher and the minimum mean diffusivity was significantly lower than in IDH-mutant gliomas (P = .011, P = .002, P = .044, and P = .027, respectively); areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranged from 0.72 to 0.76. In IDH wild-type gliomas, no difference among grades II, III, and IV was found. In IDH-mutant gliomas, no difference between those with and those without 1p/19q loss was found. Conclusion: Diffusion MRI metrics showed correlation with isocitrate dehydrogenase status in grade II and III gliomas. Advanced diffusion MRI models did not add diagnostic accuracy, supporting the inclusion of a single-shell diffusion-tensor imaging acquisition in brain tumor imaging protocols.