Prediction of mode of death in heart failure: The Seattle Heart Failure Model

Dariush Mozaffarian, Stefan D. Anker, Inder Anand, David T. Linker, Mark D. Sullivan, John G F Cleland, Peter E. Carson, Aldo P. Maggioni, Douglas L. Mann, Bertram Pitt, Philip A. Poole-Wilson, Wayne C. Levy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND - Prognosis and mode of death in heart failure patients are highly variable in that some patients die suddenly (often from ventricular arrhythmia) and others die of progressive failure of cardiac function (pump failure). Prediction of mode of death may facilitate decisions about specific medications or devices. METHODS AND RESULTS - We used the Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM), a validated prediction model for total mortality in heart failure, to assess the mode of death in 10 538 ambulatory patients with New York Heart Association class II to IV heart failure and predominantly systolic dysfunction enrolled in 6 randomized trials or registries. During 16 735 person-years of follow-up, 2014 deaths occurred, which included 1014 sudden deaths and 684 pump-failure deaths. Compared with a SHFM score of 0, patients with a score of 1 had a 50% higher risk of sudden death, patients with a score of 2 had a nearly 3-fold higher risk, and patients with a score of 3 or 4 had a nearly 7-fold higher risk (P

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)392-398
Number of pages7
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2007


  • Arrhythmia
  • Death, sudden
  • Heart failure
  • Mortality
  • Prognosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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