We evaluated 2,656 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and preserved renal function from the database of the Italian Association of Clinical Diabetologists network to identify clinical predictors for the development of chronic kidney disease. We measured estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin excretion, HbA1c, lipids, blood pressure. Over a 5-year period 4.3% (n = 115) developed reduced eGFR (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2), 18.0% (n = 477) albuminuria, and 21.0% (n = 559) either one of the renal endpoints (CKD). Odds ratios for eGFR below 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (1.48, P < 0.001), HbA1c (1.13, P = 0.002), triglycerides (1.04, P = 0.021 by 20 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (0.95, P = 0.002 by 10 mg/dL) were independently related to the onset of CKD. Known duration of diabetes (1.15, P = 0.014 by 10 years), HbA1c (1.16, P = 0.001), triglycerides (1.05, P = 0.005 by 20 mg/dL), LDL-c (0.95, P = 0.003 by 10 mg/dL), antihypertensive treatment (2.28, P = 0.018) were related to the onset of albuminuria while age and presence of baseline eGFR values between 90 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, independently affected the developing of reduced eGFR (OR 1.95, P < 0.001 by 10 years and 2.92, P < 0.001). Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and unfavorable CV risk profile are at high risk of developing CKD. The two main traits of CKD share several determinants, although with some specificities.