Predictors of Effectiveness of Anakinra in Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

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OBJECTIVE: To seek predictors of therapeutic response to the interleukin (IL)-1 inhibitor anakinra in children with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). METHODS: The clinical charts of all patients with sJIA who were newly treated with anakinra at our center between 2004 and 2017 were reviewed retrospectively. Predictors included baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables as well as previous or concomitant therapies. The effectiveness of anakinra was assessed at 1 year after treatment start. Complete clinical response (CCR) was defined as absence of fever, physician's global assessment ≤ 1, count of active joints ≤ 1, negative C-reactive protein, and ≥ 75% reduction of corticosteroid dose. According to the intention-to-treat principle, patients who had anakinra discontinued before 1 year for any reasons other than disease remission were classified as nonresponders. Statistics included univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Of the 62 patients included in the study, 24 (39%) met the criteria for CCR at 1 year, whereas 38 (61%) did not. On multivariable analysis, independent correlations with achievement of CCR were identified for shorter disease duration, lower active joint count, higher ferritin level, and greater activity of systemic manifestations. The area under the curve of the model was 0.83. CONCLUSION: Our findings help to delineate the clinical profile of patients with sJIA who are more likely to benefit from IL-1 blockade. They also underscore the need for studies aimed at examining the therapeutic role of early IL-1 inhibition and to identify biomarkers predicting response to either IL-1 or IL-6 antagonists.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)416-421
Number of pages6
JournalThe Journal of rheumatology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2019



ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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