OBJECTIVE: To assess predictors of recurrence following laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (LRH) for apparent early stage cervical cancer (CC).
METHODS: This is a retrospective multi-institutional study reviewing data of consecutive patients who underwent LRH for FIGO 2009 stage IA1 (with lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI)), IA2 and IB1(≤4 cm) CC, between January 2006 and December 2017. The following histotypes were included: squamous, adenosquamous, and adenocarcinoma. Multivariable models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% CI. Factors influencing disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were also explored.
RESULTS: 428 patients were included in the analysis. With a median follow-up of 56 months (1-162) 54 patients recurred (12.6%). At multivariable analysis, tumor size (OR:1.04, 95%CI:1.01-1.09, p = .02), and presence of cervical residual tumor at final pathology (OR: 5.29, 95%CI:1.34-20.76, p = .02) were found as predictors of recurrence; conversely preoperative conization reduced the risk (OR:0.32, 95%CI:0.11-0.90, p = .03). These predictors remained significant also in the IB1 subgroup: tumor size: OR:1.05, 95%CI:1.01-1.09, p = .01; residual tumor at final pathology: OR: 6.26, 95%CI:1.58-24.83, p = .01; preoperative conization: OR:0.33, 95%CI:0.12-0.95, p = .04. Preoperative conization (HR: 0.29, 95%CI: 0.13-0.91; p = .03) and the presence of residual tumor on the cervix at the time of surgery (HR: 8.89; 95%CI: 1.39-17.23; p = .01) independently correlated with DFS. No independent factors were associated with DSS.
CONCLUSIONS: In women with early stage CC the presence of high-volume disease at time of surgery represent an independent predictor of recurrence after LRH. Conversely, preoperative conization and the absence of residual disease at the time of surgery might play a protective role.