Objectives: We investigated whether prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 26 weeks of gestation (GW) may predict the fate of isolated upward rotation of the cerebellar vermis (URCV). Methods: This retrospective multicentre observational study included foetuses diagnosed with isolated URCV in prenatal MRI performed within 26 GW. Isolated URCV was defined by a brainstem-vermis angle (BVA) ≥ 12° in the MR midline sagittal view without abnormalities of the supratentorial structures, brainstem, or cerebellum hemispheres. The assessments included the BVA, clival-supraoccipital angle, transverse diameter of the posterior cranial fossa, tentorial angle, width of the cisterna magna (WCM), ventricular width, vermian diameters, hypointense stripes, and cerebellar tail sign. Late prenatal or postnatal MRI was used as a reference standard to assess the final vermian fate (rotated/de-rotated). Results: Forty-five foetuses (mean GW at prenatal MRI = 21.5 ± 1.4 weeks) were included. In the reference standard, the vermis was de-rotated in 26 cases (57.7%). At least two of the following criteria were used to predict the persistence of URCV at imaging follow-up: BVA ≥ 23°, WCM ≥ 9 mm, and the cerebellar tail sign. The results were a sensitivity of 84.21% (95% CI, 60.4–96.6%), specificity of 80.8% (95% CI, 60.6–93.4%), positive predictive value of 76% (95% CI, 58.7–87.8%), and negative predictive value of 87.5% (95% CI, 70.9–95.2%). Conclusions: MRI within 26 GW on foetuses diagnosed with isolated URCV may predict delayed cerebellar vermis de-rotation, which is associated with good neurodevelopmental outcome in most cases. Key Points: • Foetal MRI is a valuable tool in predicting the fate of isolated upward-rotated cerebellar vermis. • A wider angle between the brainstem and vermis is associated with higher risk of persistence of vermian rotation. • The presence of ≥ 2 factors among a brainstem-to-vermis angle ≥ 23°, width of the cisterna magna ≥ 9 mm, and the presence of the “cerebellar tail sign” has a sensitivity of 84.21% (95% CI, 60.4–96.6%) and specificity of 80.8% (95% CI, 60.6–93.4%) in predicting the persistence of the vermian rotation at imaging follow-up.
- Cerebellar vermis
- Magnetic resonance imaging
- Posterior cranial fossa
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging