Preschool psychopathology reported by parents in 23 societies: Testing the seven-syndrome model of the child behavior checklist for ages 1.55

Masha Y. Ivanova, Thomas M. Achenbach, Leslie A. Rescorla, Valerie S. Harder, Rebecca P. Ang, Niels Bilenberg, Gudrun Bjarnadottir, Christiane Capron, Sarah S W De Pauw, Pedro Dias, Anca Dobrean, Manfred Doepfner, Michele Duyme, Valsamma Eapen, Nese Erol, Elaheh Mohammad Esmaeili, Lourdes Ezpeleta, Alessandra Frigerio, Miguel M. Gonalves, Halldor S. GudmundssonSuh Fang Jeng, Pranvera Jetishi, Roma Jusiene, Young Ah Kim, Solvejg Kristensen, Felipe Lecannelier, Patrick W L Leung, Jianghong Liu, Rosario Montirosso, Kyung Ja Oh, Julia Plueck, Rolando Pomalima, Mimoza Shahini, Jaime R. Silva, Zynep Simsek, Andre Sourander, Jose Valverde, Karla G. Van Leeuwen, Bernardine S C Woo, Yen Tzu Wu, Stephen R. Zubrick, Frank C. Verhulst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective To test the fit of a seven-syndrome model to ratings of preschoolers' problems by parents in very diverse societies. Method Parents of 19,106 children 18 to 71 months of age from 23 societies in Asia, Australasia, Europe, the Middle East, and South America completed the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.55 (CBCL/1.55). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the seven-syndrome model separately for each society. Results The primary model fit index, the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), indicated acceptable to good fit for each society. Although a six-syndrome model combining the Emotionally Reactive and Anxious/Depressed syndromes also fit the data for nine societies, it fit less well than the seven-syndrome model for seven of the nine societies. Other fit indices yielded less consistent results than the RMSEA. Conclusions The seven-syndrome model provides one way to capture patterns of children's problems that are manifested in ratings by parents from many societies. Clinicians working with preschoolers from these societies can thus assess and describe parents' ratings of behavioral, emotional, and social problems in terms of the seven syndromes. The results illustrate possibilities for culturegeneral taxonomic constructs of preschool psychopathology. Problems not captured by the CBCL/1.55 may form additional syndromes, and other syndrome models may also fit the data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1215-1224
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2010


  • Assessment
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Key Words
  • Multicultural
  • Preschoolers
  • Taxonomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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