Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) represents a life-threatening side effect after haploidentical stem cell transplantation (Haplo-SCT) with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). Factors predictive of CRS development is still a matter of debate. We retrospectively analyzed 102 consecutive patients receiving a bone marrow (BM) (n = 42) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) (n = 60) Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy. The two cohorts were similar in main patients' characteristics besides disease type (P = .02). Cumulative incidence of grades 1, 2, and ≥3 CRS was 80%, 52%, and 15% at a median of 2, 4, and 7 days, respectively. Moderate/High-grade fever (39°-41°), grade 1 and grade ≥3 CRS occurred more frequently after PBSC relative to BM grafts (68% vs 33%, P = .0005; 87% vs 71%, P = .009; 20% vs 7%, P = .07). Only patients experiencing grade ≥3 CRS had a worse outcome in terms of 1-year overall survival (OS) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): 39% vs 80% (P = .002) and 40% vs 8% (P = .005), respectively. By univariate analysis the only factors associated with the increased risk of ≥3 CRS were pretransplant disease status (8% for complete remission, 11% for partial remission, and 38% for active disease, P = .002), HLA-DRB1 mismatching (57% vs 14%, P = .007), and PBSC graft (P = .07). By multivariable analysis, only pretransplant disease status (hazard ratio, HR: 6.84, P = .005) and HLA-DRB1 mismatching (HR: 17.19, P = .003) remained independent predictors of grade ≥3 CRS. Only grade ≥3 CRS is clinically relevant for the final outcome of patients receiving Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy, is more frequent after a PBSC graft and is associated with pretransplant active disease and HLA-DRB1 mismatching.