Prevalence and clinical outcome of main echocardiographic and hemodynamic heart failure phenotypes in a population of hospitalized patients 70 years old and older

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Abstract

Background: Heart failure (HF) echocardiographic and hemodynamic categories are poorly characterized in the elderly. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical outcomes of echocardiographic and hemodynamic HF phenotypes in a consecutive series of hospitalized patients aged ≥ 70 years. Methods: All consecutive patients ≥ 70 years old discharged from the Internal Medicine Unit of our Hospital with a diagnosis of HF, between January and November 2020, entered this retrospective study. All patients underwent physical examination, complete blood tests, chest X-ray and transthoracic echocardiography. At 1-year follow-up, we evaluated the occurrence of the composite outcome of all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization. Results: Two hundred and sixty-one patients (86.3 ± 6.4 years, 60.9% women) were retrospectively analyzed. From the study group, 106 “old” (70–84 years) and 155 “oldest-old” (≥ 85 years) patients were separately analyzed. A total of 169 (64.7%) patients reported the composite outcome during follow-up: 41 (15.7%) died and 128 (49.0%) were re-hospitalized. At 1-year follow-up, survival analysis did not show any statistically significant difference between age groups (p = 0.31) and between HF echocardiographic categories (p = 0.34), whereas HF patients with “cold-dry” phenotype had significantly poorer survival compared to the other hemodynamic subtypes (p < 0.001). Male sex (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.04–1.98), “cold-dry” phenotype (HR 3.90, 95% CI 1.73–8.77), high sodium level (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.04) and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–0.99) were independently associated with the outcome occurrence. Conclusions: Male sex, “cold-dry” phenotype, high sodium level and low eGFR are the main adverse prognostic indicators over a mid-term follow-up in hospitalized patients aged ≥ 70 years.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1081-1094
Number of pages14
JournalAging clinical and experimental research
Volume34
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Keywords

  • Echocardiographic categories
  • Elderly
  • Heart failure
  • Hemodynamic categories
  • Outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ageing
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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