Rubber is not itself a cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). ACD is caused by the various categories of chemicals used in the processing or rubber, especially vulcanization accelerating agents and antioxidants. In each individual mixture of rubber there may be at least 20 or 30 different components, and those of special interest to the allergist are thiuramic derivatives, derivatives of thiocarbamic acid, of urea and of phenyldiamine, mercaptobenzothiazole and its analogues and, finally, diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM). During the period 1989-1991 we carried out an epidemiological study to evaluate the sensitizing or irritating effects of the haptens employed in processing rubber. This investigation showed that there has been 59% increase of rubber positive reactions between 1989 and 1990. The ever increasing professional use of rubber gloves to protect the skin from irritants and microbiological contaminants has increased the risk of sensitization and could account for the increased incidence observed by us. Housewives are the category most at risk for ACD to rubber, and the use of gloves is the major type of exposure. After housewives, the health care personnel is the most widely involved probably due to the increased use of gloves to prevent spread of HIV virus infection. The thiuram mix is the hapten most often causes allergy in women and the PPD mix in men, who are the most involved in professional sensitization to DDM. Extra-professional ACD is due to gloves, boots, condoms, clothing, etc. Therefore, the reactiveness to the different haptens is expressed differently in the professional and nonprofessional groups. The allergenic potential is related to the processing procedures, which require additives to obtain the finished product. The frequency of atopic positivity in personal or familial environments is not significantly different from that in the general population.
|Translated title of the contribution||Prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis from rubber in the 1989-1991 in Milan|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Annali Italiani di Dermatologia Clinica e Sperimentale|
|Publication status||Published - 1993|
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