Background: Differential diagnosis of genetic causes of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is crucial for disease-specific therapy. We aim to describe the prevalence of Cardiac Amyloidosis (CA) among patients ≥40 years with an initial diagnosis of HCM referred for second opinion to national cardiomyopathy centres. Methods: Consecutive patients aged ≥40 years referred with a tentative HCM diagnosis in the period 2014–2017 underwent clinical evaluation and genetic testing for HCM (including trans-thyretin-TTR). Patients with at least one red flag for CA underwent blood/urine tests, abdominal fat biopsy and/or bone-scintigraphy tracing and eventually ApoAI sequencing. Results: Out of 343 patients (age 60 ± 13 years), 251 (73%) carried a likely/pathogenic gene variant, including 12 (3.5%) in the CA-associated genes TTR (n = 11) and ApoAI (n = 1). Furthermore, 6 (2%) patients had a mutation in GLA. Among the remaining, mutation-negative patients, 26 with ≥1 CA red-flag were investigated further: 3 AL-CA and 17 wild-type-TTR-CA were identified. Ultimately, 32(9%) patients were diagnosed with CA. Prevalence of CA increased with age: 1/75 (1%) at age 40–49, 2/86 (2%) at age 50–59, 8/84 (9%) at age 60–69, 13/61 (21%) at age 70–79, 8/31 (26%) at age ≥80 (p for trend <0.01). Conclusions: Among patients referred with and initial diagnosis of HCM, CA was the most common unrecognized mimic (9% prevalence) and increased with age (from 1% at ages 40–49 years to 26% >80 years). Age at diagnosis should be considered one of the most relevant red flags for CA in patients with HCM phenotypes; however, there is no clear age cut-off mandating scintigraphy and other second level investigations in the absence of other features suggestive of CA.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine