Objective To analyze the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis in patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) but not adherent to European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines. Materials and Methods The CHOosIng Treatment for Prostate CanCEr (CHOICE) study was an Italian multicenter, cross-sectional study conducted from December 2010 to January 2012. A total of 1386 patients treated with ADT for PCa (first prescription or renewal of ADT) were selected. According to EAU guidelines, the cohort was categorized in discordant ADT (Group A) and concordant ADT (Group B). The prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis after ADT was recorded. Results The final cohort included 1075 patients. According to EAU guidelines adherence, 285 (26.51%) and 790 (73.49%) were considered discordant and concordant, respectively. The proportion of men with Charlson Comorbidity Index > 2 at baseline was statistically similar in Group A (81.8%) compared to Group B (80.8%) (P = .96). The number of complications reported at enrollment was as follows: cardiovascular in 351 (32.7%), endocrine in 166 (15.4%), sexual in 498 (46.3%), osteoporosis in 181 (16.8%), and gynecomastia in 274 (25.5%) subjects. At the multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounding factors, discordant ADT was associated with greater risk of cardiovascular complications (odds ratio: 2.07; P < .01) and osteoporosis (odds ratio: 1.75; P = .04). Conclusion About one-third of patients with PCa received inappropriate ADT and showed a greater risk of CVD and osteoporosis. These results could be useful for setting better policy strategies to limit the inappropriateness of ADT prescription.
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