OBJECTIVE - Test the hypothesis that diabetes and related risk factors are more common among female than male Zuni Indians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey of the Zuni Indians aged ≥5 years. We used households within neighborhood clusters as the sampling frame. We administered a questionnaire, collected blood and urine, and measured height and weight. Self-reported diabetes was used to assess previously diagnosed diabetes. Participants without a prior history of diabetes were classified as having newly diagnosed diabetes if they had HbA1c >7.0% or random glucose ≥11.1 mmol/l during the survey. RESULTS - The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes among Zuni Indians aged ≥5 years (n = 1,503) was higher among female Zuni Indians (16.7% [95% CI 14.1-19.3]) than male Zuni Indians (9.7% [7.4-12.1]) (P <0.001). The prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes was similar among female Zuni Indians (2.4% [1.4-3.4]) and male Zuni Indians (2.4% [1.2-3.6]). The prevalence of previously and newly diagnosed diabetes was higher among female Zuni Indians (19.1% [16.4-21.9]) than male Zuni Indians (12.2% [9.5-14.8]) (P <0.001). The prevalence of obesity was higher among female Zuni Indians (34.3% [30.9-37.7]) than male Zuni Indians (21.5% [18.4-24.7]) (P <0.001). Obesity was associated with diabetes among female and male Zuni Indians. Physical inactivity was more common among female Zuni Indians (44.2% [40.7-47.8]) than male Zuni Indians (35.1% [31.5-38.7]) (P <0.001). However, physical inactivity was not associated with diabetes among either female or male Zuni Indians. Gestational diabetes was a risk factor among female Zuni Indians. CONCLUSIONS - Among the Zuni Indians, the prevalence of diabetes was 57% higher among female than male members of the population. Culture, tradition, and lifestyle differences may contribute to the higher prevalence of diabetes and obesity among female Zuni Indians.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism