Prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in HIV-1-infected patients in Italy: Evolution over 12 years and predictors

Laura Bracciale, M. Colafigli, M. Zazzi, P. Corsi, P. Meraviglia, V. Micheli, R. Maserati, N. Gianotti, G. Penco, M. Setti, S. Di Giambenedetto, L. Butini, A. Vivarelli, M. Trezzi, A. De Luca

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance (TDR) can reduce the efficacy of first-line antiretroviral therapy. Patients and methods A retrospective analysis was performed to assess the prevalence and correlates of TDR in Italy over time. TDR was defined as the presence of at least one of the mutations present in the surveillance drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list. Results: Among 1690 antiretroviral therapy-naive patients, the most frequent HIV subtypes were B (78.8%), CRF02_AG (5.6%) and C (3.6%). Overall, TDR was 15%. TDR was 17.3% in subtype B and 7.0% in non-B carriers (P <0.001). TDR showed a slight, although not significant, decline (from 16.3% in 1996-2001 to 13.4% in 2006-07, P = 0.15); TDR declined for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (from 13.1% to 8.2%, P = 0.003) but remained stable for protease inhibitors (from 3.7% to 2.5%, P = 0.12) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (from 3.7% to 5.8%). TDR to any drug was stable in B subtype and showed a decline trend in non-B. In multivariable analysis, F1 subtype or any non-B subtype, compared with B subtype, and higher HIV RNA were independent predictors of reduced odds of TDR. Conclusions: Prevalence of TDR to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors seems to have declined in Italy over time. Increased prevalence of non-B subtypes partially justifies this phenomenon.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)607-615
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Decline
  • Drug-naive
  • Subtype

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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