Prevention and treatment of motor fluctuations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The symptoms of Parkinson's disease can become increasingly difficult to control as the disease advances, particularly with the development of motor complications, such as end-of-dose wearing-off and dyskinesias, following long-term therapy. At this stage, the patient is frequently referred to a Parkinson's disease specialist for advice on the management of their disease. In this review we provide an overview of the Parkinson's disease specialist's strategies for coping with such problems. This includes strategy to prevent or delay motor fluctuations and the concept of the long duration response. The paper also includes establishing the optimum and most rational levodopa treatment schedule, improving levodopa absorption, use of COMT-inhibition, the addition of oral dopaminergic agonists, and the use of subcutaneous injections or infusions of apomorphine or lisuride. Finally, we highlight the increasing importance of treatment strategies that stimulate dopamine receptors in a more continuous, less pulsatile manner as a way of reducing the risk of developing treatment-associated motor complications.

Original languageEnglish
JournalParkinsonism and Related Disorders
Issue numberSUPPL. 2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2003


  • Advanced Parkinson's disease
  • COMT inhibitors
  • Dopamine agonists
  • Dyskinesias
  • Levodopa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ageing
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology


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