We report 5 years' experience with low-dose hydrochlorothiazide, 50 mg/day and amiloride, 5 mg/day, in 519 patients with recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis. Additional treatment with allopurinol, 100 mg/day, was prescribed for approximately 50 percent of the patients. All patients had active stone formation, having 3,464 stones in 3,126 patient-years (6.67 stones per patient, 1.10 stones per year). Hypercalciuria was present in 65 percent of the patients and hyperuricosuria in 24 percent. The administration of low-dose hydrochlorothiazide was effective in reducing urinary calcium excretion in most patients. It is possible that the hypocalciuric effect of hydrochlorothiazide were enhanced by amiloride, an agent which has been shown to cause hypocalciuria when given alone. Significant side effects requiring discontinuation of the drug were observed in only 5 percent of the patients. During 872.8 patient-years of treatment, only 53 new stones were formed (0.10 stones per patient, 0.06 stones per year) in contrast with the 916 predicted ones. The difference (chi-square) is statistically significant (p <0.001). These results show that the administration of low-dose hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride, either alone or in association with allopurinol, is clinically effective in reducing the rate of recurrence of calcium nephrolithiasis.
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