Prevention of cardiovascular events in early menopause: A possible role for hormone replacement therapy

Roberto Antonicelli, Fabiola Olivieri, Valeria Morichi, Elisa Urbani, Valerio Mais

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Heart disease is a major cause of illness and death in women. It is well known that there is an increase in cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors after the menopause, but it is still unclear whether the change in risk factors after the menopause is only related to the aging process or is principally due to estrogen deprivation. Observational studies suggest a protective role for estrogens, whereas recent randomized controlled trials report a negative effect of oral estrogens on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. The role of inflammation in the process of atherogenesis and in determining the cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women has been focused only recently as well as the role of the estrogen receptor system in different tissues and the role of genetic susceptibility to adverse events during estrogen therapy. The objective of this work was to review the current understanding of the relationships between cardiovascular disease risk factors and hormonal age-related changes in postmenopausal women and particularly in early and surgical postmenopausal women, for a more appropriate evaluation of the expected effects of therapy with exogenous estrogens in a specific sample of the large population of postmenopausal women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140-146
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Nov 12 2008


  • Cardiovascular prevention
  • Early menopause
  • Estrogens
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Menopause
  • Ovariectomy
  • Surgical menopause

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Prevention of cardiovascular events in early menopause: A possible role for hormone replacement therapy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this