Background: The problem of prevention of lymphatic injuries in surgery is extremely important if we think about the frequency of both early complications such as lymphorrhea, lymphocele, wound dehiscence, and infections and late complications such as lymphangites and lymphedema. Nowadays, it is possible to identify risk patients and prevent these lesions or treat them at an early stage. This article helps to demonstrate how it is important to integrate diagnostic and clinical findings to better understand how to properly identify risk patients for lymphatic injuries and, therefore, when it is useful and proper to do prevention. Methods: Authors report their experiences in the prevention and treatment of lymphatic injuries after surgical operations and trauma. After an accurate diagnostic approach, prevention is based on different technical procedures among which microsurgical procedures. It is very important to follow-up the patient not only clinically but also by lymphoscintigraphy. Results and Conclusions: It was identified a protocol of prevention of secondary limb lymphedema that included, from the diagnostic point of view, lymphoscintigraphy and, as concerns therapy, it also recognized a role to early microsurgery. It is necessary to accurately follow-up the patient who has undergone an operation at risk for the appearance of lymphatic complications and, even better, to assess clinically and by lymphoscintigraphy the patient before surgical operation.
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