Prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers with nicotinamide in transplant recipients

A case-control study

Francesco Drago, Giulia Ciccarese, Ludovica Cogorno, Camillo Calvi, Luigina A. Marsano, Aurora Parodi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Nicotinamide is the precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), an essential cofactor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. It has recently been reported to be effective in reducing the rates of new non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) and actinic keratosis (AKs). Objectives: We studied the efficacy of oral nicotinamide as treatment for AKs in transplant recipients. Materials & methods: We recruited 38 transplant (eight liver and 30 kidney) patients with single or multiple AKs. Nineteen patients were randomly assigned to Group 1 and took nicotinamide 500 mg/daily (cases); the other 19 patients were randomly assigned to Group 2 without nicotinamide (controls). At baseline, AKs were identified, measured, and photographed for follow-up. Five patients underwent an AK biopsy for histopathology. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student t test. Results: At baseline, no statistically significant differences were observed regarding AK size between the two groups. After six months, among the cases, AKs had significantly decreased in size in 18/19 patients (88%). Among these 18 patients, seven patients (42%) had shown complete clinical regression and no patient developed new AKs. Conversely, among the controls, 91% showed an increase in AK size and/or developed new AKs. Seven pre-existing AKs progressed to squamous-cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Nicotinamide appears to be effective in preventing and treating AKs, although the mechanisms are still unclear. Further studies with a larger sample of organ transplant recipients and a longer follow-up period are needed to further support our conclusions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)382-385
Number of pages4
JournalEuropean Journal of Dermatology
Volume27
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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Actinic Keratosis
Niacinamide
Skin Neoplasms
Case-Control Studies
NAD
Transplant Recipients
Transplants
Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Keywords

  • Actinic keratosis
  • Nicotinamide
  • Non-melanoma skin cancer
  • Squamous-cell carcinoma
  • Transplant recipients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology

Cite this

Prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers with nicotinamide in transplant recipients : A case-control study. / Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Calvi, Camillo; Marsano, Luigina A.; Parodi, Aurora.

In: European Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2017, p. 382-385.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Drago, Francesco ; Ciccarese, Giulia ; Cogorno, Ludovica ; Calvi, Camillo ; Marsano, Luigina A. ; Parodi, Aurora. / Prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers with nicotinamide in transplant recipients : A case-control study. In: European Journal of Dermatology. 2017 ; Vol. 27, No. 4. pp. 382-385.
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abstract = "Background: Nicotinamide is the precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), an essential cofactor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. It has recently been reported to be effective in reducing the rates of new non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) and actinic keratosis (AKs). Objectives: We studied the efficacy of oral nicotinamide as treatment for AKs in transplant recipients. Materials & methods: We recruited 38 transplant (eight liver and 30 kidney) patients with single or multiple AKs. Nineteen patients were randomly assigned to Group 1 and took nicotinamide 500 mg/daily (cases); the other 19 patients were randomly assigned to Group 2 without nicotinamide (controls). At baseline, AKs were identified, measured, and photographed for follow-up. Five patients underwent an AK biopsy for histopathology. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student t test. Results: At baseline, no statistically significant differences were observed regarding AK size between the two groups. After six months, among the cases, AKs had significantly decreased in size in 18/19 patients (88{\%}). Among these 18 patients, seven patients (42{\%}) had shown complete clinical regression and no patient developed new AKs. Conversely, among the controls, 91{\%} showed an increase in AK size and/or developed new AKs. Seven pre-existing AKs progressed to squamous-cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Nicotinamide appears to be effective in preventing and treating AKs, although the mechanisms are still unclear. Further studies with a larger sample of organ transplant recipients and a longer follow-up period are needed to further support our conclusions.",
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N2 - Background: Nicotinamide is the precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), an essential cofactor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. It has recently been reported to be effective in reducing the rates of new non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) and actinic keratosis (AKs). Objectives: We studied the efficacy of oral nicotinamide as treatment for AKs in transplant recipients. Materials & methods: We recruited 38 transplant (eight liver and 30 kidney) patients with single or multiple AKs. Nineteen patients were randomly assigned to Group 1 and took nicotinamide 500 mg/daily (cases); the other 19 patients were randomly assigned to Group 2 without nicotinamide (controls). At baseline, AKs were identified, measured, and photographed for follow-up. Five patients underwent an AK biopsy for histopathology. Statistical analyses were performed using the Student t test. Results: At baseline, no statistically significant differences were observed regarding AK size between the two groups. After six months, among the cases, AKs had significantly decreased in size in 18/19 patients (88%). Among these 18 patients, seven patients (42%) had shown complete clinical regression and no patient developed new AKs. Conversely, among the controls, 91% showed an increase in AK size and/or developed new AKs. Seven pre-existing AKs progressed to squamous-cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Nicotinamide appears to be effective in preventing and treating AKs, although the mechanisms are still unclear. Further studies with a larger sample of organ transplant recipients and a longer follow-up period are needed to further support our conclusions.

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