Prevention of Periprosthetic Joint Infection (PJI): A Clinical Practice Protocol in High-Risk Patients

Ferdinando Iannotti, Paolo Prati, Andrea Fidanza, Raffaele Iorio, Andrea Ferretti, Daniel Pèrez Prieto, Nanne Kort, Bruno Violante, Gennaro Pipino, Alfredo Schiavone Panni, Michael Hirschmann, Marco Mugnaini, Pier Francesco Indelli

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) represents 25% of failed total knee arthroplasties (TKA). The European Knee Associates (EKA) formed a transatlantic panel of experts to perform a literature review examining patient-related risk factors with the objective of producing perioperative recommendations in PJI high-risk patients. Methods: Multiple databases (Pubmed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Library) and recommendations on TKA PJI prevention measures from the International Consensus Meetings on PJI from the AAOS and AAHKS were reviewed. This represents a Level IV study. Results: Strong evidence was found on poor glycemic control, obesity, malnutrition, and smoking being all associated with increased rates of PJI. In the preoperative period, patient optimization is key: BMI < 35, diet optimization, Hemoglobin A1c < 7.5, Fructosamine < 292 mmol/L, smoking cessation, and MRSA nasal screening all showed strong evidence on reducing PJI risk. Intraoperatively, a weight-based antibiotic prophylaxis, accurate fluid resuscitation, betadine and chlorhexidine dual skin preparation, diluted povidone iodine solution irrigation, tranexamic acid administration, and monofilament barbed triclosan-coated sutures for soft tissues closure all represented effective prevention measures. In the postoperative period, failure to reach normalization of ESR, CRP, D-dimer, and IL-6 six weeks postoperatively suggested early PJI. Conclusion: The current recommendations from this group of experts, based on published evidence, support risk stratification to identify high-risk patients requiring implementation of perioperative measures to reduce postoperative PJI.

Original languageEnglish
JournalTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 11 2020


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