Primary dystonia and dystonia-plus syndromes: Clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and pathogenesis

Julie Phukan, Alberto Albanese, Thomas Gasser, Thomas Warner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The dystonias are a heterogeneous group of hyperkinetic movement disorders characterised by involuntary sustained muscle contractions that lead to abnormal postures and repetitive movements. Dystonia syndromes represent common movement disorders and yet are often misdiagnosed or unrecognised. In recent years, there have been substantial advances in the understanding of the spectrum of clinical features that encompass dystonia syndromes, from severe generalised childhood dystonia that is often genetic in origin, to adult-onset focal dystonias and rarer forms of secondary dystonias, to dystonia as a feature of other types of CNS dysfunction. There has also been a rationalisation of the classification of dystonia and a greater understanding of the causes of dystonic movements from the study of genetics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging in the most prevalent form of dystonia syndrome, primary dystonia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1074-1085
Number of pages12
JournalThe Lancet Neurology
Volume10
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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