Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is characterized by excessive PTH secretion in respect to calcium homeostasis needs, due to parathyroid adenoma (80% of cases), hyperplasia (15-20%), or carcinoma (1-2%). In familial forms of PHPT, several mutations have an established role: menin gene for MEN type 1, RET for MEN type 2a, calcium-sensing receptor gene for familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, parafibromin gene for PHPT-jaw tumour and carcinoma. Etiology of sporadic adenomas (80% of PHPT cases) is less defined, being most commonly found a mutation of menin gene or activation of PRAD1 oncogene. In recent years, the classical features of the disease became less common. Typically, bone involvement is now represented by a reduced bone mass at skeletal sites more rich in cortical tissue. Prominently trabecular skeletal sites are relatively spared, because of the anabolic effects of a slight PTH excess on trabecular tissue. PHPT patients may have increased fracture risk, though it is not clear why bone damage is more severe in a subgroup of patients. Clinical features of hypercalcemia may be fatigue, anorexia, thirst, and polyuria. Vague neurological and psychiatric symptoms, such as weakness, anxiety, depression, paresthesias, and muscular cramps may ameliorate after parathyroidectomy. Recent reports indicate increased cardiovascular mortality in PHPT patients. Diagnosis is based on the detection of hypercalcemia, together with inappropriately high serum PTH levels. Preoperative localization of the diseased glands is mandatory in persistent or recurrent PHPT, as like as when minimally invasive surgery is planned. High resolution ultrasonography and SPECT double-phase 99m Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy are the most commonly employed techniques. Intraoperatory PTH assay may confirm successful surgery when serum concentrations decrease more than 50%. Surgical therapy is indicated in patients with renal or skeletal complications, such as in those with previous parathyrotoxic crisis. Many surgeons in recent years adopted minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Medical treatment is an option for patients unwilling or unfitted for surgery because of severe concomitant diseases. Employed therapy includes estrogens, SERMs, bisphosphonates and calcimimetics.
|Translated title of the contribution||Primary hyperparathyroidism|
|Number of pages||16|
|Publication status||Published - 2005|
ASJC Scopus subject areas