Background Primary pulmonary vein stenosis (PPVS) still carries a poor prognosis, and prognostic factors remain controversial. The aim of this study was to determine outcomes and prognostic factors after PPVS repair in the current era. Methods Thirty patients with PPVS and a normal pulmonary vein (PV) connection operated on in 10 European/North American centers (2000–2012) were included retrospectively. A specific PVS severity score was developed based on the assessment of each PV. Studied end points were death, PV reoperation, and restenosis. A univariate and multivariate risk analysis was performed. Results The mean number of affected PVs per patient was 2.7 ± 1.1. Sutureless repair was used in 21 patients (70%), endovenectomy was used in 5 patients, and patch venoplasty was used in 4 patients. Overall PV restenosis, reoperation, and mortality occurred in 50%, 40%, and 30% of patients respectively. Freedom from mortality, reoperation, and restenosis at 8 years of follow-up was 70% ± 8%, 62% ± 8%, and 47% ± 9%, respectively. Restenosis and mortality rates after sutureless repair versus nonsutureless repair were 57% (n = 12 of 21) versus 33% (n = 3 of 9) (p = 0.42) for restenosis and 38% (n = 8 of 21) versus 11% (n = 1 of 9) (p = 0.21) for mortality. Patients selected for a sutureless technique were younger and smaller and had more severe disease before operation. A postoperative high PVS score and pulmonary hypertension 1 month after the operation were independent risk factors for restenosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.34; p = 0.002 and HR, 6.81; p = 0.02, respectively), reoperation (HR, 1.24; p = 0.01 and HR, 7.60; p = 0.02), and mortality (HR, 1.39; p = 0.01 and HR, 39.5; p = 0.008). Conclusions Primary PVS still has a guarded prognosis in the current era despite adoption of the sutureless technique. Postoperative pulmonary hypertension and severity of disease evaluated by a new severity score are independent prognostic factors regardless of surgical technique.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine