Primary, secondary and compensated hypogonadism: a novel risk stratification for infertile men

E Ventimiglia, Silvia Ippolito, P Capogrosso, F Pederzoli, W Cazzaniga, Luca Boeri, I Cavarretta, M Alfano, P Viganò, F Montorsi, A Salonia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Recently, the cohort of men from the European Male Ageing Study has been stratified into different categories distinguishing primary, secondary and compensated hypogonadism. A similar classification has not yet been applied to the infertile population. We performed a cross-sectional study enrolling 786 consecutive Caucasian-European infertile men segregated into eugonadal [normal serum total testosterone (≥3.03 ng/mL) and normal luteinizing hormone (≤9.4 mU/mL)], secondary (low total testosterone, low/normal luteinizing hormone), primary (low total testosterone, elevated luteinizing hormone) and compensated hypogonadism (normal total testosterone; elevated luteinizing hormone). In this cross-sectional study, logistic regression models tested the association between semen parameters, clinical characteristics and the defined gonadal status. Eugonadism, secondary, primary and compensated hypogonadism were found in 80, 15, 2, and 3% of men respectively. Secondary hypogonadal men were at highest risk for obesity [OR (95% CI): 3.48 (1.98–6.01)]. Primary hypogonadal men were those at highest risk for azoospermia [24.54 (6.39–161.39)] and testicular volume
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)505-510
Number of pages6
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2017


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