OBJECTIVE - We explore the relationship among BMI, habitual diet, and the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ2. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The Pro12Ala variant was characterized in 343 unrelated type 2 diabetic patients who were consecutively seen at the outpatient clinic of a health district of the province of Naples. Anthropometric and laboratory parameters were measured; habitual diet was assessed by a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS - The overall frequency of Ala12 was 12% (n = 42). BMI was significantly higher in Ala carriers than non-Ala carriers, whereas total daily energy intake or macronutrient composition of the diet were similar in the two groups. For further analysis, participants were stratified according to genotype and sex-specific quartiles of energy intake. BMI increased in both genotype groups with increasing energy intake (P <0.03). BMI was similar in Ala carriers and non-Ala carriers (30.0 vs. 30.1 kg/m2, P > 0.10) in the lower quartile of energy intake but significantly higher in Ala carriers in the upper quartile (36.0 vs. 32.1 kg/m2, P <0.001). Average daily energy intake and diet composition were comparable within each quartile for carriers or noncarriers of the Ala allele. Relative to the noncarriers, Ala carriers had a significantly lower energy intake per kilogram body weight, thus suggesting that the Ala allele is associated with a higher food efficiency. The confounding role of medications, glucose control, and physical exercise was ruled out. CONCLUSIONS - This study provides evidence of a differential susceptibility to fat accumulation, and, hence, weight gain, in response to habitual high energy intake for Ala carriers compared with Pro/Pro homozygotes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism