Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis mediated by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are main features of chronic inflammation and tumors. Secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s) are overexpressed in inflammatory lung diseases and cancer and they activate inflammatory cells by enzymatic and receptor-mediated mechanisms. We investigated the effect of sPLA2s on the production of VEGFs from human macrophages purified from the lung tissue of patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Primary macrophages express VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D at both mRNA and protein level. Two human sPLA2s (group IIA and group X) induced the expression and release of VEGF-A and VEGF-C from macrophages. Enzymatically-inactive sPLA2s were as effective as the active enzymes in inducing VEGF production. Me-Indoxam and RO092906A, two compounds that block receptor-mediated effects of sPLA2s, inhibited group X-induced release of VEGF-A. Inhibition of the MAPK p38 by SB203580 also reduced sPLA 2-induced release of VEGF-A. Supernatants of group X-activated macrophages induced an angiogenic response in chorioallantoic membranes that was inhibited by Me-Indoxam. Stimulation of macrophages with group X sPLA 2 in the presence of adenosine analogs induced a synergistic increase of VEGF-A release and inhibited TNF-α production through a cooperation between A2A and A3 receptors. These results demonstrate that sPLA2s induce production of VEGF-A and VEGF-C in human macrophages by a receptor-mediated mechanism independent from sPLA2 catalytic activity. Thus, sPLA2s may play an important role in inflammatory and/or neoplastic angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas