Prognostic factors for survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Retrospective analysis from 109 consecutive patients

G. Citterio, A. Bertuzzi, M. Tresoldi, L. Galli, G. Di Lucca, U. Scaglietti, C. Rugarli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC) portends a bad prognosis, but survival is quite different among different patients. The objective of this study was to determine prognostic factors for survival with the aim to offer patients proper therapeutic options. Methods: A consecutive series of 109 metastatic RCC patients admitted to our department since 1988 was reviewed, and survival from the time of diagnosis with metastases recognition was considered. The role of age, sex, disease-free interval (DFI), ECOG performance status (PS), stage at diagnosis, grading, number and type of metastatic sites, nephrectomy, blood levels of hemoglobin, creatinine, albumin, calcium, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides was assessed in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: In our study, the following variables were found to be statistically significant at the univariate analysis (p <0.01): DFI, ECOG PS, stage at diagnosis, grading, nephrectomy, sites of metastases, blood hemoglobin, serum albumin, calcium, LDH, alkaline phosphatase. Indeed, only an ECOG PS of 2-3 (relative risk 1.82; p = 0.003) and blood hemoglobin levels ≤ 10 g/100 ml (relative risk 1.20; p = 0.017) retained their value as independent risk factors for poor survival at multivariate analysis. According to the number of independent risk factors, three groups of patients were identified, with significantly different median survival (21.7 vs. 8.6 vs. 3.5 months; log-rank test: p = 0.00004, p = 0.04126 and p = 0.00047, respectively). Conclusions: Poor performance status and anemia at diagnosis of metastatic RCC predict the worst outcome in our series. These factors could be taken into account to stratify patients in clinical trials and to select the proper treatment option in oncological practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)286-291
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Urology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1997


  • Metastases
  • Prognostic factors
  • Renal cell cancer
  • Survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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