Prognostic factors in advanced cancer patients: Evidence-based clinical recommendations - A study by the steering committee of the european association for palliative care

Marco Maltoni, Augusto Caraceni, Cinzia Brunelli, Bert Broeckaert, Nicholas Christakis, Steffen Eychmueller, Paul Glare, Maria Nabal, Antonio Vigano, Philip Larkin, Franco De Conno, Geoffrey Hanks, Stein Kaasa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Purpose: To offer evidence-based clinical recommendations concerning prognosis in advanced cancer patients. Methods: A Working Group of the Research Network of the European Association for Palliative Care identified clinically significant topics, reviewed the studies, and assigned the level of evidence. A formal meta-analysis was not feasible because of the heterogeneity of published studies and the lack of minimal standards in reporting results. A systematic electronic literature search within the main available medical literature databases was performed for each of the following four areas identified: clinical prediction of survival (CPS), biologic factors, clinical signs and symptoms and psychosocial variables, and prognostic scores. Only studies on patients with advanced cancer and survival ≤ 90 days were included. Results: A total of 38 studies were evaluated. Level A evidence-based recommendations of prognostic correlation could be formulated for CPS (albeit with a series of limitations of which clinicians must be aware) and prognostic scores. Recommendations on the use of other prognostic factors, such as performance status, symptoms associated with cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (weight loss, anorexia, dysphagia, and xerostomia), dyspnea, delirium, and some biologic factors (leukocytosis, lymphocytopenia, and C-reactive protein), reached level B. Conclusion: Prognostication of life expectancy is a significant clinical commitment for clinicians involved in oncology and palliative care. More accurate prognostication is feasible and can be achieved by combining clinical experience and evidence from the literature. Using and communicating prognostic information should be part of a multidisciplinary palliative care approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6240-6248
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Volume23
Issue number25
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005

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Palliative Care
Biological Factors
Anorexia
Survival
Xerostomia
Neoplasms
Cachexia
Lymphopenia
Delirium
Leukocytosis
Deglutition Disorders
Life Expectancy
Dyspnea
C-Reactive Protein
Signs and Symptoms
Meta-Analysis
Weight Loss
Databases
Research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

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Prognostic factors in advanced cancer patients : Evidence-based clinical recommendations - A study by the steering committee of the european association for palliative care. / Maltoni, Marco; Caraceni, Augusto; Brunelli, Cinzia; Broeckaert, Bert; Christakis, Nicholas; Eychmueller, Steffen; Glare, Paul; Nabal, Maria; Vigano, Antonio; Larkin, Philip; De Conno, Franco; Hanks, Geoffrey; Kaasa, Stein.

In: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 23, No. 25, 2005, p. 6240-6248.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Maltoni, M, Caraceni, A, Brunelli, C, Broeckaert, B, Christakis, N, Eychmueller, S, Glare, P, Nabal, M, Vigano, A, Larkin, P, De Conno, F, Hanks, G & Kaasa, S 2005, 'Prognostic factors in advanced cancer patients: Evidence-based clinical recommendations - A study by the steering committee of the european association for palliative care', Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 25, pp. 6240-6248. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.06.866
Maltoni, Marco ; Caraceni, Augusto ; Brunelli, Cinzia ; Broeckaert, Bert ; Christakis, Nicholas ; Eychmueller, Steffen ; Glare, Paul ; Nabal, Maria ; Vigano, Antonio ; Larkin, Philip ; De Conno, Franco ; Hanks, Geoffrey ; Kaasa, Stein. / Prognostic factors in advanced cancer patients : Evidence-based clinical recommendations - A study by the steering committee of the european association for palliative care. In: Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2005 ; Vol. 23, No. 25. pp. 6240-6248.
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AU - Christakis, Nicholas

AU - Eychmueller, Steffen

AU - Glare, Paul

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