Prognostic Impact of Prolonged Cross-Clamp Time in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

Vito G. Ruggieri, Karl Bounader, Jean Philippe Verhoye, Francesco Onorati, Antonino S. Rubino, Giuseppe Gatti, Tuomas Tauriainen, Marisa De Feo, Daniel Reichart, Magnus Dalén, Peter Svenarud, Giuseppe Faggian, Giuseppe Santarpino, Daniele Maselli, Riccardo Gherli, Giovanni Mariscalco, Antonio Salsano, Francesco Nicolini, Tiziano Gherli, Matteo SaccocciJuhani K.E. Airaksinen, Sidney Chocron, Andrea Perrotti, Fausto Biancari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The prognostic impact of cross-clamp time (XCT) in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has not been thoroughly investigated. Material and Methods: 2957 patients who underwent on-pump isolated CABG from the prospective multicentre E-CABG study were the subjects of this analysis. Results: The mean XCT in this series was 58. ±. 25. minutes Cross-clamp time was >60 minutes in 1134 patients (38.3%), >75. minutes in 619 patients (20.9%) and >90. minutes in 296 patients (10.0%). Multivariate analysis showed that XCT was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (p. <. 0.0001, OR 1.027, 95%CI 1.015-1.039) along with age (p. <. 0.0001), female gender (p = 0.001), pulmonary disease (p = 0.001), poor mobility (p = 0.002), urgency status (p = 0.007), critical preoperative status (p = 0.002) and participating centres (p = 0.015). Adjusted risk of 30-day mortality was highest for XCT >75. minutes (2.9% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.002, OR 3.479, 95%CI 1.609-7.520). Analysis of 428 propensity score matched pairs showed that XCT >75. minutes was associated with significantly increased risk of early mortality, prolonged use of inotropes, postoperative use of intra-aortic balloon pump, use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, atrial fibrillation, prolonged stay in the intensive care unit and of composite major adverse events. Conclusions: Isolated CABG is currently performed with prolonged XCT in a significant number of patients and this seems to be a determinant of poor early outcome.

Original languageEnglish
JournalHeart Lung and Circulation
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • CABG
  • Cardiac surgery
  • Coronary artery bypass
  • Cross clamp
  • Cross-clamping
  • Myocardial ischaemia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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