Purpose: To prospectively investigate the role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculated from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a potential prognostic biomarker in the evaluation of the aggressiveness of gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: This prospective study had institutional review board approval. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. Between October 2009 and December 2013, a total of 99 patients (65 men, 34 women; mean age, 62.02 years; age range, 32.33-85.15 years) with biopsy-proved cancer (28 esophagogastric junction and 71 gastric cancers) were examined with a 1.5-T MR imaging system, including T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted sequences. ADC measurements were obtained. Seventy-one patients were directly treated with surgery, while 28 underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy beforehand. Pathologic ADC, pathologic T and N stages, tumor location, surgical approach, and histologic subtype were investigated with univariate and multivariate analyses by using the Cox regression model. Results: At a total median follow-up period of 21 months, 31 patients had died. The median follow-up was 25 months for the surgery-only group (19 of 31 events [61%]) and 28 months for the chemotherapy group (12 of 31 events [39%]). In the multivariate analysis, ADC values of 1.5 × 10-3 mm2/sec or lower were associated with a negative prognosis, both in the total population (log-relative risk, 1.73; standard error, 0.56; P = .002) and in the surgery-only (log-relative risk, 1.97; standard error, 0.66; P = .003) and chemotherapy (log-relative risk, 2.93; standard error, 1.41; P = .03) groups, along with other significant prognostic factors (in particular, pathologic T and N stages). Conclusion: Pathologic ADC represents a strong independent prognostic factor in the evaluation of the aggressiveness of gastric cancer, in addition to clinical and surgical variables.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging