Prognostic value of cell cycle regulatory proteins in muscle-infiltrating bladder cancer

Fabia Galmozzi, Alessandra Rubagotti, Andrea Romagnoli, Giorgio Carmignani, Luisa Perdelli, Beatrice Gatteschi, Francesco Boccardo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the expression levels of proteins involved in cell cycle regulation in specimens of bladder cancer and to correlate them with the clinicopathological characteristics, proliferative activity and survival. Methods: Eighty-two specimens obtained from patients affected by muscle-invasive bladder cancer were evaluated immunohistochemically for p53, p21 and cyclin D1 expression, as well as for the tumour proliferation index, Ki-67. The statistical analysis included Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: In univariate analyses, low Ki-67 proliferation index (P = 0.045) and negative p21 immunoreactivity (P = 0.04) were associated to patient's overall survival (OS), but in multivariate models p21 did not reach statistical significance. When the combinations of the variables were assessed in two separate multivariate models that included tumour stage, grading, lymph node status, vascular invasion and perineural invasion, the combined variables p21/Ki-67 or p21/cyclin D1 expression were independent predictors for OS; in particular, patients with positive p21/high Ki-67 (P = 0.015) or positive p21/negative cyclin D1 (P = 0.04) showed the worst survival outcome. Conclusions: Important alterations in the cell cycle regulatory pathways occur in muscle-invasive bladder cancer and the combined use of cell cycle regulators appears to provide significant prognostic information that could be used to select the patients most suitable for multimodal therapeutic approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)757-764
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2006


  • Cyclin D1
  • Ki-67
  • Muscle-invasive bladder cancer
  • p21
  • p53

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology


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