Strategies for relapse prevention after allogeneic transplantation in acute leukaemia are warranted. A registry-based matched-pair analysis evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusion (proDLI). Adults receiving proDLI in complete remission (CR) and controls were pair-matched for age, diagnosis, cytogenetics, stage, donor, gender, conditioning and T-cell depletion. Eighty-nine pairs were identified (median follow-up: 6.9 years). Within the entire cohort, no difference was observed. However, among patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (unfavourable cytogenetics and/or transplanted beyond first CR), proDLI recipients had improved overall survival (69.8% vs. 40.2% in controls, P = 0.027). ProDLI has moderate efficacy, but can contribute to improved outcome in high-risk AML.
- acute leukaemia
- allogeneic stem cell transplantation
- relapse prevention
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