Background: The role of nasal continuous positive airways pressure (nCPAP) in the management of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants is not completely defined. Objective: To evaluate the benefits and risks of prophylactic nCPAP in infants of 28-31 weeks gestation. Design: Multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting: Seventeen Italian neonatal intensive care units. Patients: A total of 230 newborns of 28-31 weeks gestation, not intubated in the delivery room and without major malformations, were randomly assigned to prophylactic or rescue nCPAP. Interventions: Prophylactic nCPAP was started within 30 minutes of birth, irrespective of oxygen requirement and clinical status. Rescue nCPAP was started when FIO 2 requirement was > 0.4, for more than 30 minutes, to maintain transcutaneous oxygen saturation between 93% and 96%. Exogenous surfactant was given when FIO2 requirement was > 0.4 in nCPAP in the presence of radiological signs of respiratory distress syndrome. Main outcome measures: Primary end point: need for exogenous surfactant. Secondary end points: need for mechanical ventilation and incidence of air leaks. Results: Surfactant was needed by 22.6% in the prophylaxis group and 21.7% in the rescue group. Mechanical ventilation was required by 12.2% in both the prophylaxis and rescue group. The incidence of air leaks was 2.6% in both groups. More than 80% of both groups had received prenatal steroids. Conclusions: In newborns of 28-31 weeks gestation, there is no greater benefit in giving prophylactic nCPAP than in starting nCPAP when the oxygen requirement increases to a FIO2 > 0.4.
|Journal||Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition|
|Publication status||Published - Sep 2004|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health