Proposal of the TBN classification of thoracic anomalies and treatment algorithm for Poland syndrome

Maria Victoria Romanini, Michele Torre, Pierluigi Santi, Laura Dova, Maura Maria Valle, Carlo Martinoli, Iaria Baldelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Poland syndrome is a congenital deformity characterized by unilateral anomalies of pectoralis muscles, breast, nipple, axillary fold, subcutaneous tissue, ribs, and upper limb. The thoracic anomaly, which is the pathognomonic malformation of Poland syndrome, presents a wide phenotype variability and has been classified by different authors. However, these classifications do not include all the possible phenotypes of Poland syndrome. The aim of this study is to propose a simple classification of the whole spectrum of thoracic anomalies and a treatment algorithm that could have a practical value for determining the surgical approach. Methods: Since 2008, 100 patients have been evaluated by the same plastic surgical team at San Martino Hospital-IST and Istituto Gaslini of Genoa, Italy, using the thorax, breast, nipple-areola complex (TBN) classification. Thoracic anomalies were classified as follows: thorax (T), from T1 (muscle defect only) to T4 (complex deformity with rib and sternal involvement); breast (B), in B1 (hypoplasia) or B2 (amastia); and nipple-areola complex (N), from N1 (dislocation

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)50-58
Number of pages9
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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