OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency, clinical and etiologic features, and short- and long-term outcomes of early recurrent TIA. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study enrolled all consecutive patients with TIA referred to our emergency department and diagnosed by a vascular neurologist. Expedited assessment and best secondary prevention were performed within 24 hours. Primary endpoints were stroke and a composite outcome including stroke, acute coronary syndrome, and vascular death at 3, 12, and, for a subset of patients, 60 months; secondary outcomes were TIA relapse, cerebral hemorrhage, new-onset atrial fibrillation, and death resulting from other causes. Concordance between index TIA and subsequent stroke etiologies was also evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 1,035 patients (822 with a single TIA, 213 with recurrent TIA = 21%) were enrolled from August 2010 to December 2017. Capsular warning syndrome and large artery atherosclerosis showed the strongest relationship with early recurrent TIA. The risk of stroke was significantly higher in the early recurrent TIA subgroup at each follow-up, and most stroke episodes occurred within 48 hours of index TIA. TIAs with lesion, dysarthria, and leukoaraiosis were the 3- and 12-month independent predictors of stroke incidence after early recurrent TIA subgroup. Index TIA and subsequent stroke etiologies showed substantial concordance. An ABCD3 score >6 predicted a higher risk of stroke recurrence over the entire follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our study evaluated long-term outcome after early recurrent TIA. Our observations support the importance of promptly detecting and treating patients with early recurrent TIAs to reduce the high early and long-term risk of poor clinical outcomes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology