Purpose: This phase II prospective study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 5-days azacytidine (5d-AZA) in patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Second, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic profile and phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) β1 levels were studied to evaluate possible biologic markers able to predict the hematologic response. Experimental Design: The study tested a lower intensity schedule of azacytidine. The treatment plan consisted of 75 mg/sqm/d subcutaneous administered for 5 days every 28 days, for a total of 8 cycles. Results: Thirty-two patients were enrolled in the study. The overall response rate was 47% (15 of 32) on intention-to-treat and 58% (15 of 26) for patients completing the treatment program. In this latter group, 5 (19%) achieved complete remission (CR) and 10 (38%) had hematologic improvement, according to the International Working Group (IWG) criteria. Three patients have maintained their hematologic improvement after 37, 34, and 33 months without other treatments. Moreover, 21 and 2 of 26 cases completing 8 cycles were transfusion-dependent for red blood cells and platelets at baseline, respectively. Of these, 7 (33%) and 2 (100%) became transfusion-independent at the end of the treatment program, respectively. Grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 28% of patients and 4 patients died early due to infections or hemorrhage. SNP results were not significantly correlated to the clinical outcome, whereas PI-PLCβ1 level anticipated either positive or negative clinical responses. Conclusions: 5d-AZA is safe and effective in a proportion of patients with low-risk MDS. PI-PLCβ1 gene expression is a reliable and dynamic marker of response that can be useful to optimize azacytidine therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research