Prostaglandin analogs and timolol-fixed versus unfixed combinations or monotherapy for open-angle glaucoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Luciano Quaranta, Elena Biagioli, Ivano Riva, Eliana Rulli, Davide Poli, Andreas Katsanos, Irene Floriani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: To estimate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) administered in combination with β-blockers. Methods: We searched the Medline and Embase databases for randomized trials comparing topical therapies with PGAs and timolol administered as monotherapy (Mt), or in fixed (FC) or unfixed combinations (UC) to patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. The efficacy endpoint was the mean difference (MeD) in the reduction in IOP from baseline; the tolerability endpoint was the incidence of hyperemia. Results: The 18 eligible trials involved 23 comparisons of FC versus Mt, and 5 of FC versus UC. The FCs were less efficacious than UCs (MeD: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.08). In comparison with timolol Mt, the latanoprost/timolol FC led to a greater IOP reduction (MeD: -2.74, 95% CI: -3.24 to -2.23) than the bimatoprost/timolol FC (MeD: -1.49, 95% CI: -1.86 to -1.12) or the travoprost/timolol FC (MeD: -1.93, 95%CI: -2.98 to -0.88). The FCs led to a lower hyperemia risk than UCs [relative risk (RR): 0.70, 95% CI: 0.43 to 1.14] and PGA Mt (RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.53 to 0.70). Conclusions: FCs are more efficacious than their individual components, but less efficacious than their respective UCs. FCs lead to a lower hyperemia risk than UCs and their respective PGA Mts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)382-389
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2013


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Ophthalmology
  • Pharmacology

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