Prosthetic joint infection due to Mycobacterium xenopi: a review of the literature with a new case report

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Purpose: Extrapulmonary infections due to M. xenopi, particularly osteoarticular localizations, are rare. The purpose of this paper is to describe a case of prosthetic hip infection and to review the published literature on cases of M. xenopi osteoarticular infections. Methods: Literature search was performed in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Central (the Cochrane Library 2019, Issue 1), LILACS (BIREME) (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database) and Clinical Trials databases (14th August 2018). We included all case reports and case series on adult patients diagnosed with bone or joint infection by M. xenopi for whom the treatment and outcome were specified. Results: We retrieved 30 cases published between 1982 and 2012, among which 25 (83.3%) were reported from Europe. The two most common infection sites were spine (12/30, 40%) and knee (9/30, 30%). Risk factors for infection were previous invasive procedures (11/30, 36.7%), autoimmune disease (8/30, 26.7%), AIDS (4/30, 13.3%) and other comorbidities (2/30, 6.7%); five patients had no past medical history. All patients were treated with antibiotic combinations, but composition and duration of regimens hugely varied. Surgical intervention was performed in 16 patients (53.3%). Only 11 patients obtained full recovery of articular mobility after treatment. Conclusion: This work highlights the difficulties in diagnosing and treating M. xenopi osteoarticular infections. Globally, evidence supporting the best practice for diagnosis and treatment of this infection is scanty.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019


  • Mycobacterium xenopi
  • Osteoarticular infection
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Prosthetic joint infection
  • Review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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