Proteinuria, a target for renoprotection in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy: Lessons from RENAAL

Dick De Zeeuw, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Hans Henrik Parving, William F. Keane, Zhongxin Zhang, Shahnaz Shahinfar, Steve Snapinn, Mark E. Cooper, William E. Mitch, Barry M. Brenner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. Proteinuria or albuminuria is an established risk marker for progressive renal function loss. Albuminuria can be effectively lowered with antihypertensive drugs that interrupt the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated whether albuminuria could not only serve as a marker of renal disease, but also function as a monitor of the renoprotective efficacy of RAS intervention by the angiotensin II (Ang II) antagonist, losartan, in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The data from the RENAAL (Reduction in End Points in Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan) study, a double-blind, randomized trial, were used to examine the effects of losartan on the renal outcome [i.e., the primary composite end point of doubling of serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death] in 1513 type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. We examined the effect of the degree of albuminuria at baseline, initial antiproteinuric response to therapy, and the degree of remaining (residual) albuminuria on renal outcome (either the primary composite end point of RENAAL or ESRD). We also evaluated the contribution to renal protection of the antiproteinuric effect of losartan independently of changes in blood pressure. Results. Baseline albuminuria is almost linearly related to renal outcome, and is the strongest predictor among all measured well-known baseline risk parameters. After adjusting for baseline risk markers of age, gender, race, weight, smoking, sitting diastolic blood pressure, sitting systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, serum creatinine, albuminuria, hemoglobin, and hemoglobin A 1c (HbA1c) patients with high baseline albuminuria (≥3.0 g/g creatinine) showed a 5.2-fold (95% CI 4.3-6.3) increased risk for reaching a renal end point, and a 8.1-fold (95% CI 6.1-10.8) increased risk for progressing to ESRD, compared to the low albuminuria group (

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2309-2320
Number of pages12
JournalKidney International
Volume65
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2004

Keywords

  • Albuminuria progressive renal function loss
  • Angiotensin II antagonism
  • Proteinuria
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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