Proteoglycans (PGs) as a whole, or when considering their GAG chains as single entities, are emerging as key regulators of tumor progression. Expectations on using them as putative prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets are increasing coincidentally. Due to the multitude of biological roles that they may invest and the ample spectrum of cellular processes that they may control, we still need to learn better how they regulate phenomena such as intracellular signaling, proliferation, apoptosis, motility, and drug resistance. Depending on the type, their expression pattern, and the accessibility of their molecular ligands, PGs can either promote or inhibit tumorigenesis. The structural and functional diversity of PGs coupled with their ubiquitous abundance place them at the crossroads of many critical steps within the metastatic cascade. As this phenomenon is the pivotal factor for patient survivals, particular attention should be given to the understanding of how PGs govern metastasis formation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine