M2-tumor-associated macrophages (M2-TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment represent a prognostic indicator for poor outcome in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here we show that Prune-1 overexpression in human TNBC patients has positive correlation to lung metastasis and infiltrating M2-TAMs. Thus, we demonstrate that Prune-1 promotes lung metastasis in a genetically engineered mouse model of metastatic TNBC augmenting M2-polarization of TAMs within the tumor microenvironment. Thus, this occurs through TGF-β enhancement, IL-17F secretion, and extracellular vesicle protein content modulation. We also find murine inactivating gene variants in human TNBC patient cohorts that are involved in activation of the innate immune response, cell adhesion, apoptotic pathways, and DNA repair. Altogether, we indicate that the overexpression of Prune-1, IL-10, COL4A1, ILR1, and PDGFB, together with inactivating mutations of PDE9A, CD244, Sirpb1b, SV140, Iqca1, and PIP5K1B genes, might represent a route of metastatic lung dissemination that need future prognostic validations.
- Molecular Biology
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