Psychological, neuroendocrine and immune measures in non spousal carers of disabled elderly in Italy

Mauro Provinciali, Raffaella Moresi, Mario Muzzioli, Denis Tarabelli, Cristina Sirolla, Maria Gabriella Melchiorre, Maria Giovanna Tucci, Alberto Panerai, Paola Sacerdote, Massimo Mengani, Giovanni Lamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether psychological well being as well as metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune functions were different in non spousal primary caregivers of disabled elderly than in controls. Setting and Design: We randomly recruited 38 primary family carers of over 65 year old recipients of health home care services and 37 controls stratified according to sex and age. Method: Data were collected on psychological wellbeing (including anxiety, depression and self-perceived quality of life), on neuroendocrine and immune conditions (haemanalysis and metabolic signs, plasma ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, intra-lymphocyte content of β-endorphins, NK cell activity and number), as well as on the incidence and severity of influenza disease during previous winter. Results: Caregivers showed greater anxiety, although mean scores did not reach pathological levels. Neither depression nor satisfaction on quality of life did differ significantly, nor differences in haemanalisis and metabolic signs were found, apart from leukocyte and lymphocyte number, which was significantly lower in carers. Plasma levels of ACTH, cortisol and prolactin, the intra-lymphocyte content of β -endorphins as well as the NK cell number and cytotoxicity did not show significant differences. Incidence and severity of influenza episodes was also similar, whereas the duration of influenza disease showed to be significantly longer. Conclusions: Non spousal caregivers of disabled elderly suffer from only slight alterations of psychological, endocrine and immune parameters, and do not respond very differently to influenza disease. This does not support therefore any generic privilege for them in the allocation of public support or respite services.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-396
Number of pages6
JournalNeuroendocrinology Letters
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2004


  • Caregivers
  • Disabled elderly
  • Immune system
  • Neuroendocrine parameters
  • Psychological state

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Neuroscience(all)


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