Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Cognitive Reserve Scale (I-CRS)

Manuela Altieri, Mattia Siciliano, Simona Pappacena, María Dolores Roldán-Tapia, Luigi Trojano, Gabriella Santangelo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The original definition of cognitive reserve (CR) refers to the individual differences in cognitive performance after a brain damage or pathology. Several proxies were proposed to evaluate CR (education, occupational attainment, premorbid IQ, leisure activities). Recently, some scales were developed to measure CR taking into account several cognitively stimulating activities. The aim of this study is to adapt the Cognitive Reserve Scale (I-CRS) for the Italian population and to explore its psychometric properties. I-CRS was administered to 547 healthy participants, ranging from 18 to 89 years old, along with neuropsychological and behavioral scales to evaluate cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms, and apathy. Cronbach's α, corrected item-total correlations, and the inter-item correlation matrix were calculated to evaluate the psychometric properties of the scale. Linear regression analysis was performed to build a correction grid of the I-CRS according to demographic variables. Correlational analyses were performed to explore the relationships between I-CRS and neuropsychological and behavioral scales. We found that age, sex, and education influenced the I-CRS score. Young adults and adults obtained higher I-CRS scores than elderly adults; women and participants with high educational attainment scored higher on I-CRS than men and participants with low education. I-CRS score correlated poorly with cognitive and depression scale scores, but moderately with apathy scale scores. I-CRS showed good psychometric properties and seemed to be a useful tool to assess CR in every adult life stage. Moreover, our findings suggest that apathy rather than depressive symptoms may interfere with the building of CR across the lifespan.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1383-1390
Number of pages8
JournalNeurological Sciences
Volume39
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018

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Cognitive Reserve
Psychometrics
Apathy
Depression
Education
Sex Education

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Cognition Disorders/diagnosis
  • Cognitive Reserve/physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Psychometrics
  • Reference Values
  • Translating
  • Young Adult

Cite this

Altieri, M., Siciliano, M., Pappacena, S., Roldán-Tapia, M. D., Trojano, L., & Santangelo, G. (2018). Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Cognitive Reserve Scale (I-CRS). Neurological Sciences, 39(8), 1383-1390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-018-3432-0

Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Cognitive Reserve Scale (I-CRS). / Altieri, Manuela; Siciliano, Mattia; Pappacena, Simona; Roldán-Tapia, María Dolores; Trojano, Luigi; Santangelo, Gabriella.

In: Neurological Sciences, Vol. 39, No. 8, 08.2018, p. 1383-1390.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Altieri, M, Siciliano, M, Pappacena, S, Roldán-Tapia, MD, Trojano, L & Santangelo, G 2018, 'Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Cognitive Reserve Scale (I-CRS)', Neurological Sciences, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1383-1390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-018-3432-0
Altieri M, Siciliano M, Pappacena S, Roldán-Tapia MD, Trojano L, Santangelo G. Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Cognitive Reserve Scale (I-CRS). Neurological Sciences. 2018 Aug;39(8):1383-1390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-018-3432-0
Altieri, Manuela ; Siciliano, Mattia ; Pappacena, Simona ; Roldán-Tapia, María Dolores ; Trojano, Luigi ; Santangelo, Gabriella. / Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Cognitive Reserve Scale (I-CRS). In: Neurological Sciences. 2018 ; Vol. 39, No. 8. pp. 1383-1390.
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AB - The original definition of cognitive reserve (CR) refers to the individual differences in cognitive performance after a brain damage or pathology. Several proxies were proposed to evaluate CR (education, occupational attainment, premorbid IQ, leisure activities). Recently, some scales were developed to measure CR taking into account several cognitively stimulating activities. The aim of this study is to adapt the Cognitive Reserve Scale (I-CRS) for the Italian population and to explore its psychometric properties. I-CRS was administered to 547 healthy participants, ranging from 18 to 89 years old, along with neuropsychological and behavioral scales to evaluate cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms, and apathy. Cronbach's α, corrected item-total correlations, and the inter-item correlation matrix were calculated to evaluate the psychometric properties of the scale. Linear regression analysis was performed to build a correction grid of the I-CRS according to demographic variables. Correlational analyses were performed to explore the relationships between I-CRS and neuropsychological and behavioral scales. We found that age, sex, and education influenced the I-CRS score. Young adults and adults obtained higher I-CRS scores than elderly adults; women and participants with high educational attainment scored higher on I-CRS than men and participants with low education. I-CRS score correlated poorly with cognitive and depression scale scores, but moderately with apathy scale scores. I-CRS showed good psychometric properties and seemed to be a useful tool to assess CR in every adult life stage. Moreover, our findings suggest that apathy rather than depressive symptoms may interfere with the building of CR across the lifespan.

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KW - Age Factors

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KW - Neuropsychological Tests

KW - Psychiatric Status Rating Scales

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