Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the multifactorial memory questionnaire for adults and the elderly

S. Raimo, Luigi Trojano, M. Siciliano, S. Cuoco, A. D’Iorio, F. Santangelo, L. Abbamonte, D. Grossi, G. Santangelo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reliable and valid metamemory measures are needed to assess subjective memory complaints that can be distinct from objective memory performance. The Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire (MMQ) evaluates dimensions of subjective memory functioning such as frequency of memory problems (Ability), affect related to memory abilities (Contentment), and strategy use in everyday life (Strategy). To examine the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the MMQ, six hundred Italian healthy individuals (aged 25–91 years) completed MMQ, a questionnaire assessing metacognition (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, CFQ) and two batteries assessing cognitive global status (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA; Mini Mental State Examination, MMSE). MMQ was easy to administer, acceptable, and had good test–retest reliability (r for the total MMQ score 0.95), and internal consistency (Cronbach’s α for the total MMQ score = 0.83). An exploratory factor analysis provided a four-factor solution: “Ability” (α = 0.99), “Contentment” (α = 0.91), “External Strategies” (α = 0.85) and “Internal Strategies” (α = 0.78) factors. MMQ total score and MMQ-Ability factor score showed good convergent validity when compared to CFQ score (rrho ≥ 0.51), whereas MMQ total score and the four MMQ factors showed good divergent validity when compared to MoCA and MMSE score (rrho ≤ 0.27). Demographic variables significantly influenced MMQ total score and most subscale scores. From the derived linear equations, we computed correction factors for raw scores and percentile distribution of adjusted scores. The Italian version of MMQ is reliable and valid to assess dimensions of metamemory in adult and elderly subjects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalNeurological Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Metamemory
  • Reliability
  • Self-repost questionnaire
  • Subjective memory complaints
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Dermatology

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