L'ipertensione arteriosa polmonare. Parte II: Terapia medica e chirurgica

Translated title of the contribution: Pulmonary arterial hypertension. Part II: Medical and surgical treatment

Alessandra Manes, Alessandro Marinelli, Massimiliano Palazzini, Luca Negro, Enri Leci, Simona Gambetti, Cristina Bachetti, Elena Beciani, Elisa Conficoni, Angelo Branzi, Nazzareno Galiè

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (group 1 of clinical classification) has been recently characterized by important progresses, particularly in pharmacological therapy. Only until few years ago, patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were treated with non-specific drugs, such as diuretics and digoxin for right heart failure and calcium-channel blockers in the minority of cases, responders to the acute vasoreactivity test. In addition, use of oral anticoagulant treatment was supported by uncontrolled studies. In the last 15 years (in particular in the last 8 years) different randomized controlled trials assessing the functional, clinical and hemodynamic efficacy of three classes of targeted drugs (prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors) with pulmonary vascular dilating and antiproliferative effects have been performed. This information has allowed the proposal of an evidence-based treatment algorithm. Treatment starts with general measures (physical activity, fertility control, respiratory tract infection, etc.) and supportive therapy (anticoagulant therapy, diuretics, oxygen, digoxin). Patients who respond to the acute vasoreactivity test (10% of idiopathic form) are treated with high doses of calcium-channel blockers, non-responders with targeted therapies either on monotherapy or combination. Usually an oral active drug is initiated and a second compound of a different class is combined in case of non-satisfactory response to the first treatment. Combination therapy should be performed only in specialized centers with large experience on use of targeted therapies and their relevant side effects. In case of failure of medical therapy, possible options are balloon atrial septostomy and/or listing for lung or heart-lung transplantation. As available treatments do not constitute a cure for pulmonary arterial hypertension, further progresses are expected in the near future.

Translated title of the contributionPulmonary arterial hypertension. Part II: Medical and surgical treatment
Original languageItalian
Pages (from-to)366-381
Number of pages16
JournalGiornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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