OBJECTIVE: The current understanding of pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left ventricular diseases does not distinguish heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) from HF and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), in terms of pulmonary hemodynamics. The value of pulmonary vascular compliance (PCa) and diastolic pulmonary gradient (DPG) as predictors of survival in either HF syndrome is controversial. The aims of our study were to compare the pulmonary hemodynamics in the two HF phenotypes, given similar values of pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP), and to evaluate the impact of PCa and DPG on survival.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 168 PH-HFrEF and 86 PH-HFpEF patients. The independent association of PCa and DPG with prognosis was assessed by means of a Cox proportional hazard model. All cause survival was analyzed over an average follow-up period of 50 months.
RESULTS: PH-HFpEF patients had a significantly higher DPG than PH-HFrEF patients (6.1±7.1 vs 1.8±4.5 mmHg, adjusted P=.025). PCa was similar in PH-HFpEF and PH-HFrEF. PCa was a significant predictor of survival, according to previously described preset cutoffs (2.15 mL/mmHg in HFrEF and 1.1 mL/mmHg in HFpEF) and based on a continuous scale; whereas DPG had no impact on survival in both patients groups.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that for similar levels of PAWP, pulmonary circulation may be stiffer in patients with HFpEF-PH than patients with HFrEF-PH, leading to higher DPGs. Nonetheless, PCa rather than DPG emerged as the stronger predictor of survival in both left-sided PH phenotypes.
- Journal Article