Group 2 pulmonary hypertension is most frequently caused by left heart disease, a heterogeneous set of disorders. These processes include left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular dysfunction with preserved ejection fraction and valvular (mitral and/or aortic) diseases. Left heart disease may cause passive backward transmission of pressure leading to elevated left atrial and pulmonary arterial pressures due to a myriad of processes. Increasingly, it has been recognized that some patients may develop pulmonary arterial pressure out of proportion from what is expected. This is believed to be due to increases in vasomotor tone and/or vascular remodeling. Over time patients may go on to develop progressive right ventricular dysfunction, a marker for poor prognosis. This review will explore the different characteristics of these conditions including the incidence, pathophysiology, clinical implications, prognosis and current state of available medical therapies.
- Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
- Pulmonary hypertension
- Right ventricular dysfunction
- Systolic dysfunction
- Valvular disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine