Pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with left heart disease, or Group 2 PH, includes heart failure, valvular heart diseases, and congenital heart diseases. Although it is axiomatic that in PH due to heart failure the increase in pulmonary pressure is directly related to an enhanced left atrial pressure, which is common to both heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), there has been limited attention over the years on the potential differences in terms of driving mechanisms, pathophysiology, and clinical phenotypes. Major differences between HFpEF and HFrEF are the underlying causes, associated comorbidities, and cardiac remodeling. This suggests that despite similar hemodynamic profiles, there may be some disparities in PH development. A focused knowledge on the differences between the 2 syndromes has relevant implications to seek new, personalized, and timely treatments for Group 2 PH. The purpose of the present review is to highlight the mechanisms and clinical phenotypes of PH in HFpEF and HFrEF.
- Heart Failure/diagnosis
- Hypertension, Pulmonary/diagnosis
- Stroke Volume/physiology