Patients on hemodialysis (HD) who undergo surgery represent a high risk group requiring careful perioperative management to avoid electrolyte imbalance and hemodynamic instability. The aim of the study was to analyze the postoperative outcome in terms of complications and survival of a group of patients on HD who had undergone pulmonary resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Six patients on HD underwent seven pulmonary resections at our institution from 1998 to 2003. The underlying kidney disease was nephrosclerosis in two patients and glomerulonephritis in four. The mean levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were 107 ± 11.5 mg/dl and 7.9 ± 0.64 mg/dl, respectively. The mean preoperative PO2 and FEV1 were 77.6 ± 2.4 mmHg and 2.4 ± 0.16 liters, respectively. The histologic diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma in four cases and adenocarcinoma in three. One patient underwent two lung resections in 4 years for two primary lung cancers. Five patients underwent lobectomy, one underwent a wedge resection, and in one case pneumonectomy was performed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. There was no operative mortality. Postoperatively, atrial fibrillation occurred in two patients associated with sputum retention in both, and two other patients had hyperkalemia (complication rate 57%). One patient died of cardiac complications 27 months after surgery. The remaining five patients are currently alive with no evidence of disease. Patients on HD who undergo lung resection have a high rate of postoperative complications. Although the underlying disease influences long-term survival, radical lung resection in NSCLC patients is recommended in selected cases. Careful metabolic, hematologic, and pharmaceutical management is mandatory during the perioperative period.
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